Just to explain some technical terms and ease the use of a common, inner language.
For a fully understanding, you may consult this glossary, also to ease the use of a common language.


TWILL - Twill, or saia in Italian, is generally named the fabric that, depending on its construction (weft-warp), produces an effect in crosswise relief. The construction can optionally occur as follows:
It depends on the tablet weaving and, therefore, on the weft and warp sequence: two warps one weft, three warps one  weft, four warps one weft or, reversing, one weft two warps, and so on... Twill will, therefore, be called light or heavy depending on how much warp or weft you will see.

in this case the number of weft equals the number of warp. The peculiarity is that the fabric is identical in both sides, front and back. As the number of threads increases, the inclination increases too and the fabric will gets new commercial names, such as: batavia, levantina or cavallery.

These are the terms used to indicate the direction of the fabric's diagonal. If the diagonal goes from the left upwards to the right, the  fabric is Right hand, otherwise it is Left hand (you can try to turn the fabric clockwise or counter-clockwise, the diagonal direction won't change). That is not only a matter of appearance, the fabric will actually get different level of texture: thicker the Right, looser the Left. In this case, as well, the diagonal direction and the construction are determined by the weft and warp sequence.

The kind of thread used to realize a denim fabric is generally ring. The shuttle used for the ring will suffer several twisting at irregular speed, creating knots in the thread structure; these knots will make unevenness on the fabric's surface, giving it a rough aspect.

The self-finished edges of fabric are called selvage (US English) or selvadge (British English) and are created by the weft thread looping back at the end of each row. Practically, the height of the fabric (weft) could be calculated on the x-axis, while the length (warp) on the y-axis. Throughout the ages, due to a better product  industrialisation, the fabrics is higher than how it was in the past, 150 cm; earlier a fabric used to be high from 75 to 100 cm. The 100 cm fabrics are still generally used for men's shirts and suits; the 75 cm cotton fabrics had contrast coloured selvages, in order to help the cutting to remain inside the border.
During the tailoring, the jeans' side cutting was leant exactly on the outside edge of the fabric (selvage); therefore, the lengthwise grain shifted on the jeans' side, rather than on the inseam (as for the classic slack). Hence the peculiar twisting of a jeans' leg. Moreover, the very particular tailoring technique used to close the inseam makes possible to tailor the outseam with an open seam, leaving 1/1,5 cm of seam allowance: the jeans’ cuff will show, then, the  fabric's selvage. Hence, the jeans realized with this particular  technique are called selvaged. It is important to highlight that it's not possible to twist the outseam during this process. It is necessary a very learned work of construction of the other parties, to guarantee a perfect wearability. Furthermore, it implies that you can consume up to 4 metres of fabric just for a pair of jeans.

The typical indigo colour is obtained by the maceration of the Indigofera tinctoria plant's leaves. The dyeing of the denim's warp occurs in thread or in hank; every thread or hank get dipped into bath full of the plant extract pigment. After the dipping, every thread is exposed to the air. The pigment, in contact with the oxygen, is subjected to the oxydation process, which will turn the colour from the initial green to the ultimate blue. It is possible to dip the threads up to 30 times, to soak the colour deeper in the fibres.
The main difference between this one and the other dyeing techniques is that the pigment gets fixed only on the outside part of the thread, leaving the inside basically white; therefore, as time goes by, the  superficial scraping will decolourize the denim, giving the jeans the typical worn look.

It is possible to obtain a different colour of casts, included anyway in the scale of blue, depending on the kind of oxydation and on the various chemical element used to ease the pigment's fixing on the thread.
The weft can be dyed increasing the number of possible toning. The  casts can be, for example, beige, red, green, silver and so on…



Scraping > hand-made scratching on the back and front of the jeans.
Sandblast > The garment is literally sandblasted for a worn look.
Whiskers > whiskers on the pelvis area
Back knee whiskers > whiskers behind the knees
Fishbone > whiskers along the legs
Star > whiskers on the knees' front
Wrinkles > upright bars
Jolly > special tailor's dummy to create relief whiskers
Resin wash > dipping/sprinkling of resin on the jeans
Enzyme wash > water and enzyme wash
Overdye > Golden brushstroke of chlorine on dyed fabric
Surface > dye with pigments in suspension